What is safer sex?
Safer sex refers to things you do to stay healthy, avoid sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and avoid getting pregnant when you have sex.
Penetrative sex is when something, like a penis or a sex toy goes inside someone else's mouth, vagina or bottom (anus). Vaginal, anal and oral sex are all types of penetrative sex.
Using condoms is the best way to prevent getting STIs when you have penetrative sex with someone with a penis. However, not everyone has penetrative sex. Some people choose to only have non-penetrative sex.
Non-penetrative sex - is sexual activity that does not include penetration of the vagina, mouth or anus.
Before having any type of sex, you should talk to your partner about what you both want and are ready to do. Safer sex starts with consent.
What is contraception?
Contraception refers to products or methods that can help to prevent pregnancy.
When you have penetrative sex with someone with a penis, using condoms is the best way to prevent sexually transmitted infections. There are also other types of contraception you can use to stay healthy and avoid getting pregnant.
Types of contraception
There are many types of contraception. We have listed the most common ones below, as well as the pros (good things) and cons (bad things) about each of them.
Male condom – The male condom is a thin tube of rubber that is put on an erect (hard) penis before sex. When used correctly, male condoms can be 98% effective in preventing pregnancy and STIs. 
Male condoms are sold at supermarkets, pharmacists and petrol stations and are often given out for free at family planning clinics and doctors’ surgeries.
Female condom – The female condom is a soft rubber pouch with a ring at one end that is placed inside the vagina. When used correctly, female condoms can be 95% effective in preventing pregnancy and STIs. 
Female condoms can be found at some chemists and health clinics.
Pros – Condoms are cheap and easy to use, can be carried around in your wallet or bag and don’t have side effects. They are also the best way to prevent STIs during penetrative sex.
Cons – Condoms can only be used once, they need to be used every time you have sex, and they can sometimes break.
Tip: You can find the Family Planning Clinic in your area on the Family Planning Alliance Australia website (external link).
A dental dam is a piece of square plastic that is used as a physical barrier between a person's mouth and another person's vagina during oral sex. They come in lots of different colours and flavours and are used to help protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Pros - Dental dams protect you against STIs during oral sex, are cheap to buy and available over the counter from most pharmacies and sexual health clinics.
Cons - Dental dams can only be used once and are not effective if they slip off during sex. They can only be used on people with vaginas. When performing oral sex on a someone with a penis, a person should use a condom instead of a dental dam to prevent STIs.
The birth control pill is a way for women and people with uteruses to avoid getting pregnant. It's a small pill you take every day, and it works by stopping the hormones that release eggs from the ovaries, preventing pregnancy.
When used correctly, the pill is about 97% effective in preventing pregnancy, but it doesn't protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It's important to know that other medications can affect how well the pill works. To make it most effective, take the pill every day at the same time.
Some people might have side effects like changes in weight, sex drive, or mood while taking the pill. If you're worried or have questions about these side effects, talk to your doctor. There are different types of pills, and some might have fewer side effects for you. Two of the most common types of contraceptive pill are described below.
The combined pill – The combined pill is usually called ‘The Pill’ and contains two hormones: oestrogen and progestogen. To be effective, it has to be taken every day.
Most packs of The Pill include 21 hormonal pills, which you take for three weeks, and then 7 sugar pills, which you take for the following seven days. A couple of days after taking the sugar pill, most women will get bleeding that is thought of as a menstrual period. However, this bleeding is usually lighter than a normal period and occurs as result of a withdrawal from the hormones in The Pill.
Tip: You can learn more about menstruation on the Your Body page.
Mini pill – The mini pill works the same way as The Pill but includes only one hormone: progestogen. Packs of the mini pill usually include 28 hormonal pills and no sugar pills.
Pros – Both types of the pill are very effective in preventing pregnancy if taken everyday.
Cons – You need to get a script from a doctor to get The Pill and some people experience side effects like mood swings, headaches, nausea and weight gain. The Pill does not protect against STIs.
Injections and implants
Depo Provera – Depo Provera is a needle injection that contains the hormone progestogen and is given to a woman every 12 weeks. It is 99.5% effective in preventing pregnancy. 
Pros – The Depo Provera injection can be good for women who can’t take tablets or find it hard to remember to take the pill everyday.
Cons - The Depo Provera injection needs to be given by a doctor every 12 weeks and can cause side effects like loss of periods, weight gain, mood changes and headaches. Hormone levels are also very low while using Depo Provera, so there is some concern that using it for a long period of time may lead to thinning of the bones (osteoporosis). 
Implanon – The Implanon is a small rod that is about 4cm long and contains the hormone progestogen. It is inserted by a trained healthcare provider into your upper arm. It lasts for 3 years and is 99.95% effective in preventing pregnancy. 
Pros – The Implanon only needs to be inserted once every 3 years and can be taken out by a trained healthcare provider whenever you want.
Cons – Some women experience side effects like changes to periods, mood swings, headaches, and skin problems.
Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)
Hormonal IUD (Mirena) - The Mirena is a small, T-shaped device made of material containing progesterone and is fitted inside a woman’s uterus by a doctor or nurse. It is 99.8% effective in preventing pregnancy. 
Copper IUD – The Copper IUD is inserted the same way as the Mirena, but is made of copper and does not contain hormones. It is 99% effective in preventing pregnancy. 
Pros – Both types of IUDs can last from 5 - 10 years and can be taken out at any time.
The Copper IUD is also effective as emergency contraception up to 120 hours after having unprotected sex.
Cons – Both forms of IUD can cause random bleeding and spotting in the first six months of use and need to be inserted and removed by a trained healthcare provider.
The Hormonal IUD can also cause other side effects like headaches and mood swings, but is much cheaper than the Copper IUD.
There are many different types of contraception. It was not possible to list all of the different types on this page, but you can read about other types of contraception like the Ring, the Diaphragm and the 'pull out method' on the Contraception Australia website (external link).
Female Sterilisation is the process of taking away the ability of women to have children away through surgery. The most common procedure is known as Tubal Ligation, which involves blocking the reproductive tubes to stop the ova (eggs) and sperm coming together.
Pros – Sterilisation lasts forever and means you don’t have to worry about contraception. Sterilisation can be good for people who are sure they never want to give birth to children. Many people who were assigned female at birth, but are non-binary or transgender also find it can help.
Cons – The procedure is difficult to reverse. Surgical repair of the fallopian tubes after laparoscopic sterilization is an option, but only about half of the women who undergo this procedure end up getting pregnant. There is a higher chance of having a pregnancy outside the womb (ectopic pregnancy) after the reversal.
Note: If a woman is not able to consent to sterilisation, the decision can only be made under the direction of an appropriate state authority.
Male sterilization is achieved through a procedure called a vasectomy. This surgery prevents sperm from coming out during ejaculation, making it a reliable method to avoid pregnancy. However, it doesn't provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
If you're a woman wanting to avoid pregnancy and your partner says they have had a vasectomy, you need to trust that they are being honest about having the procedure done because there's no visible sign from the outside. It typically takes about three months or longer for a vasectomy to become fully effective after the surgery.
If you'd like to know more about the benefits and risks of using a vasectomy as contraception, you can talk to your GP or a family planning nurse.
Sterilisation can sometimes be forced upon women with disability without their consent or knowledge. Forced contraception and sterilisation is a form of sexual health violence and is never OK.
Forced contraception and sterilisation is internationally recognised as a form of violence against women and girls with disability.
Tip: You can learn more by downloading and reading WWDA Position Statement 4: Sexual and Reproductive Rights.
In Australia, there are 2 types of emergency contraception available:
- The copper IUD (mentioned above) is the most effective form of emergency contraceptive. It can be inserted up to 120 hours (five days) after unprotected sex and provides long lasting and effective long-term protection against pregnancy.
- Emergency contraceptive pills (also known as the morning after pill or ECP) may stop you from becoming pregnant by stopping or delaying your ovaries from releasing an egg.
Emergency contraceptive pills
There are 2 types of pills which can be used as emergency contraception. The most common (often referred as the 'Ella' pill) can be used up to 3 days or 72 hours after unprotected sex. The second option (often called 'Plan B') can be used up to 5 days or 120 hours after unprotected sex.
Both types of emergency contraceptive or 'morning after' pills are available over-the-counter at most pharmacies and Family Planning clinics without a prescription.
Pros – The morning after pill is 85% effective in preventing pregnancy and can be useful in cases when condoms break or are forgotten. 
The morning after pill can be useful if you forget to use your normal contraception, or have a condom break during sex.
Cons – Emergency contraceptive pills don't always work and can be expensive if you use them often. For many people, they also cause side effects like headaches and nausea.
Tip: You can take a quiz on the Planned Parenthood website (external link) to find out if you can use the morning after pill.
 Marie Stopes Australia (2018) Contraception Australia: Male condoms (external link).
 Marie Stopes Australia (2018) Contraception Australia: Female condoms (external link).
 Family Planning Victoria (2019) Contraceptive injection (Depo) (external link).
 The Royal Women's Hospital (2019) Depo Provera (external link)
 Family Planning Victoria (2019) Contraceptive implants (Implanon) (external link).
 Marie Stopes Australia (2018) Contraception Australia: Hormonal IUD (external link).
 Family Planning Victoria (2019) Intrauterine device (IUD) contraception (external link).
 Marie Stopes Australia (2018) Contraception Australia: Emergency contraception pills (external link).